Chapter 9: Prepositions

Section 9.1: Common Prepositions

Prepositions are essential words that establish relationships between different elements in a sentence, such as location, direction, time, and more. In Esperanto, there are several common prepositions that are used in various contexts. Here are some of the most frequently used prepositions:

  1. en - in, inside

  2. sur - on, onto

  3. sub - under, below

  4. apud - near, beside, next to

  5. antaŭ - in front of, before

  6. post - behind, after

Section 9.2: How to Use Prepositions in Sentences

Understanding how to use prepositions correctly is crucial for clear and accurate communication in Esperanto. Here are some guidelines for using prepositions in sentences:

  1. Location:

    • Mi estas en la domo. - I am in the house.

    • La libro estas sur la tablo. - The book is on the table.

  2. Direction:

    • Ili iras al la lernejo. - They are going to school.

    • Mi kuris sub la arbo. - I ran under the tree.

  3. Time:

    • Ni renkontiĝos post la tagmanĝo. - We will meet after lunch.

    • La festo okazos antaŭ la ferio. - The party will take place before the holiday.

  4. Position/Comparison:

    • La hundo kuŝas apud la pordo. - The dog lies next to the door.

    • La birdo flugas antaŭ la fiŝo. - The bird flies in front of the fish.

  5. Purpose or Use:

    • Ŝi uzas la komputilon por labori. - She uses the computer for work.

    • Mi prenis la ombrelon kontraŭ la pluvo. - I took the umbrella against the rain.

  6. Manner/Means:

    • Li parolas kun rapideco. - He speaks with speed.

    • Mi skribas per plumo. - I write with a pen.

  7. Cause or Reason:

    • La infano ridas pro ĝojo. - The child laughs because of joy.

    • Ŝi ploras pro malĝojo. - She cries because of sadness.

It's important to note that prepositions in Esperanto do not change based on gender or case, which simplifies their usage compared to some other languages. However, understanding their meanings and when to use them correctly is essential for fluent communication. Practice incorporating these prepositions into your sentences to enhance your language skills in Esperanto.