Chapter 6: Adjectives and Adverbs

Section 6.1: Introduction to Adjectives and Adverbs

In Esperanto, adjectives and adverbs play a crucial role in describing and modifying nouns and verbs, respectively.

Adjectives are words that describe or modify nouns. They provide additional information about the noun they accompany. In Esperanto, adjectives usually end in "-a" and agree with the noun in number (singular or plural) and case (nominative, accusative, etc.).


  • bela domo (beautiful house)

  • granda hundo (big dog)

  • juna knabo (young boy)

Adverbs are words that describe or modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They provide more information about how an action is performed or the degree of an adjective. In Esperanto, many adverbs are formed by adding the suffix "-e" to the adjective form.


  • rapide kuri (to run quickly)

  • bone manĝi (to eat well)

  • tre bela kanto (a very beautiful song)

Section 6.2: Comparison of Adjectives (pli, plej, malpli, malplej)

To compare adjectives in Esperanto, you can use these words:

  • pli - more

  • plej - most

  • malpli - less

  • malplej - least

Here's how to use them:

  • To form the comparative (comparing two things):

    • Pli [adjective] - more [adjective]

    • Malpli [adjective] - less [adjective]


  • Pli granda ol la alia. - Bigger than the other one.

  • Malpli rapida ol ŝi. - Less fast than she is.

  • To form the superlative (comparing more than two things):

    • Plej [adjective] - the most [adjective]

    • Malplej [adjective] - the least [adjective]


  • La plej bela floro. - The most beautiful flower.

  • Malplej interesa temo. - The least interesting topic.

Section 6.3: Adjective Placement

In Esperanto, adjectives typically come after the noun they describe, unlike in English where they usually come before. However, the order can be flexible depending on emphasis and style. Placing the adjective after the noun is the default and most common way to use adjectives.


  • Domaj problemoj (household problems)

  • Rozaj floroj (pink flowers)

  • Feliĉa vivo (a happy life)

If you want to emphasize the adjective, you can place it before the noun, but it's less common in everyday speech.


  • Feliĉa vivo (a happy life) or Vivo feliĉa (Life happy)

Understanding the use of adjectives and adverbs, as well as the comparison of adjectives, will enable you to describe and modify nouns and verbs effectively in Esperanto. Practice using adjectives and adverbs in sentences to enhance your language skills and express yourself more precisely.