Chapter 12: Conditional and Subjunctive Mood

Section 12.1: Conditional Mood (Using -us)

The conditional mood in Esperanto is used to express actions or events that are dependent on a certain condition or circumstance. It is often equivalent to the English "would" or "could." To form the conditional mood, you add the suffix "-us" to the verb's infinitive form.

Here's how you conjugate verbs in the conditional mood:

  • paroli (to speak) becomes parolus (would speak)

  • esti (to be) becomes estus (would be)

  • mangi (to eat) becomes manĝus (would eat)


  • Mi parolus kun vi, se mi havus tempon. - I would speak with you if I had time.

  • Li estus feliĉa, se li gajnus la loterion. - He would be happy if he won the lottery.

  • Ni manĝus picon, sed ni estas senmono. - We would eat pizza, but we are broke.

The conditional mood is commonly used in hypothetical or speculative situations where the outcome depends on a condition being met.

Section 12.2: Subjunctive Mood (Using -u)

The subjunctive mood in Esperanto is used to express wishes, desires, doubts, uncertainty, or hypothetical situations. It is often indicated by the presence of the suffix "-u" in the verb form. The subjunctive mood is versatile and can be used in various contexts.

Here's how you conjugate verbs in the subjunctive mood:

  • paroli (to speak) becomes parolu (let [someone] speak)

  • esti (to be) becomes estu (let [something] be)

  • mangi (to eat) becomes manĝu (let [someone] eat)


  • Li petas, ke vi parolu pli laŭte. - He asks that you speak louder.

  • Mi volas, ke la paco regu en la mondo. - I want peace to reign in the world.

  • Estu feliĉa! - Be happy!

The subjunctive mood allows you to express a range of emotions, hopes, or requests, and it is commonly used after certain conjunctions and verbs that imply doubt or desire.

Understanding both the conditional and subjunctive moods in Esperanto is valuable for expressing various shades of meaning and communicating effectively in different contexts. Practice using these moods to convey hypothetical situations, wishes, or uncertainties in your conversations and writing.