Chapter 11: Imperative Mood and Commands

Section 11.1: Giving Commands and Requests

The imperative mood in Esperanto is used to give commands, make requests, or offer suggestions. It is a way to directly address someone and ask them to do something. The imperative mood is quite straightforward and is often used in daily communication. Here's how it works:

Section 11.2: Imperative Conjugation (-u)

To form the imperative in Esperanto, you use the verb in its imperative form. The imperative is formed by taking the infinitive verb and removing the final "-i" and then adding "-u" to the root of the verb.

Here's how you conjugate verbs in the imperative:

  • paroli (to speak) becomes parolu (speak)

  • esti (to be) becomes estu (be)

  • mangi (to eat) becomes manĝu (eat)


  • Bonvolu helpi min. - Please help me.

  • Ne manĝu tiom da sukero. - Don't eat so much sugar.

  • Venu ĉi tien! - Come here!

In the imperative mood, you often use the base form of the verb, which doesn't change based on person (I, you, he/she, etc.). It's a direct way to give instructions or make requests.

Section 11.3: Politeness and Tone

In Esperanto, the tone and politeness of a command or request can be adjusted by using various words and phrases. For instance, to make a command more polite, you can use:

  • Bonvolu (please): Bonvolu doni al mi libron. - Please give me the book.

  • Mi petas (I ask): Mi petas vin veni. - I ask you to come.

To make a command less direct, you can use:

  • Se vi volas (if you want): Se vi volas, vi povas iri. - If you want, you can go.

The imperative mood allows you to give instructions, make requests, and express your intentions clearly in Esperanto. It is a useful tool for effective communication, whether you are giving directions, offering suggestions, or politely requesting assistance. Practice using the imperative mood in various contexts to become more proficient in this aspect of the language.